Claviradulomyces P.R.Johnst., D.C.Park, H.C.Evans, R.W.Barreto & D.J.Soares was proposed to accommodate an apothecial fungus found growing on abnormal lenticels of Erythroxylon mannii Oliv. (Erythroxylaceae) in Africa (Ghana and Ivory Coast). After a second species of Claviradulomyces – C. xylopiae R.W.Barreto, H.C.Evans & P.R.Johnst. – was found, also growing on abnormal lenticels of a plant belonging to a different family (Annonaceae) in South America (Brazil), it was conjectured that Claviradulomyces might be ubiquitous, but overlooked because of its cryptic nature. Here indications that this hypothesis may be correct were strenghned. Several collections of native Brazilian plants bearing seemingly abnormal (hypertrophied and spongy) lenticels belonging to five different plant families (Anacardiaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae and Salicaceae) from several localities in schinii Brazil yielded typical structures of the asexual morph of Claviradulomyces – black pycnidia with rostrate ostiole containing fusoid-filiform hyaline conidia. Pure cultures were obtained for Claviradulomyces spp. collected from plants belonging to five of these host families. Five novel species of Claviradulomyces were recognized based on a combination of morphology and molecular features and are described herein as: C. caseariae sp. nov. (on Casearia ulmifolia Vahl ex. Vent.), C. machaeriae D.M.Macedo & R.W.Barreto, sp. nov. (on Machaerium sp.) C. schini sp. nov. (on Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi), C. tabebuiae sp. nov. (on Tabebuia roseo-alba (Ridl.) Sandwith) and C. vernoniae sp. nov. (on Vernonia sp.). A Bayesian inference analysis of the LSU and rpb2 region of the known and novel species of Claviradulomyces supported the proposal of the new fungal family Claviradulomyceae fam. nov. (Ostropales). So far, Claviradulomyces is the only genus in this new family.
Asexual morph, LSU, Ostropales, phylogeny, new family, new species