This paper deals with some of the larger, more or less yellowish or orange Cantharellus species from the tropical African woodlands and rain forests. Four new species with clamp connections are described: Cantharellus guineensis, C. mikemboensis, C. pseudomiomboensis and C. stramineus. The new taxa show moderate to strong resemblance to either Cantharellus rufopunctatus or C. miomboensis. A two-locus phylogeny, based on part of the protein coding genes rpb2 and tef-1, resolved them as a highly supported clade within Cantharellus subgenus Rubrinus, a subgenus still exclusively composed of tropical African species. This monophyletic clade is here described as a new section within subg. Rubrinus. As the subgenus was previously defined as being composed of chanterelles lacking clamp connections, the definition of the subgenus is here amended. Illustrations and new records are also presented for Cantharellus afrocibarius, C. defibulatus, C. miomboensis, C. rufopunctatus and C. sublaevis. This paper provides first sequences for C. defibulatus, C.rufopunctatus and C. sublaevis, all of which are here epitypified, as well as new sequences for more than a dozen other Cantharellus. Cantharellus cibarius var. latifolius is considered a synonym of C. afrocibarius. An identification key to all mainland African Cantharellus is proposed.