The flora of the Cianowice 2 borehole (c. 20 km NW of Cracow, Poland), dominated by cycadophytes (mainly bennettitaleans) and conifers, shows high taxonomic diversity relative to the low number of specimens. Twenty species were identified in the 96 determinable plant fragments found in 27 core samples: Cladophlebis sp. (ferns), Pachypteris rhomboidalis (Ettingshausen) Nathorst and Ptilozamites cycadea (Berger) Möller (seed ferns), Anomozamites nilssonii (Phillips) Seward, Nilssoniopteris solitaria (Phillips) Cleal & Rees, Otozamites mimetes Harris, Otozamites parallelus Phillips, Pterophyllum thomasii Harris, Pterophyllum cf. aequale (Brongniart) Nathorst, Ptilophyllum cf. okribense forma ratchiana Doludenko & Svanidze, Ptilophyllum pecten Phillips, Ptilophyllum sirkennethii Watson & Sincock, Cycadolepis sp. (bennettitaleans), Pseudotorellia grojecensis Reymanówna, Pseudotorellia samylinae Nosova & Kiritchkova, Pseudotorellia sp. (Gymnospermae incertae sedis), Bilsdalea dura Harris, Mirovia szaferi Reymanówna, and Brachyphyllum stemonium Kendall (conifers). The floristic composition is supplemented by palynological data. The taxa were connected to five depositional successions distinguished along the core: one, alluvial fans; two, four and five, meandering/anastomosing river depositional systems with fluvial plain deposits; and three, lacustrine/backswamp environment developed on fluvial plain. The composition of the fossil plant assemblage changes with the depositional setting within the same range of taxa, seen mainly in changed combinations of taxa, which are most diverse in the fluvial plain deposits. Some taxa occur in a single depositional succession; some are present in two or three. The sporomorph assemblages of particular depositional environments differ significantly from the composition of the co-occurring macroflora: ferns occur sporadically in the macroflora of each depositional environment but they strongly dominate the sporomorph assemblage. Our proposed reconstruction of the palaeoenvironment is a slight rise descending into a valley with a depositionary basin, with gymnosperms on the slope and ferns at the base. Some species are shared between Cianowice and nearby Middle Jurassic localities in Grojec and Zabierzów, and the majority of taxa are known from the Middle Jurassic, suggesting that the Cianowice deposits are of that age.
Bennettitalean dominance, sporomorphs, palaeoenvironment reconstruction