Four human remains: one mandible, two skulls and one metatarsus were discovered between 1991 and 1999 at the open-air site of Dmanisi, Georgia, in a precise stratigraphic, palaeontological and archaeological context, in volcanic ashes dated to 1.81 ± 0.05 Ma. The first studies of these fossils enable the authors to compare them with the morphology of archaic African Homo erectus, ascribed to Homo ergaster, and to ascertain hominid presence at the gates of Europe 300 000 years earlier than the classical scenario forecasted. In September 2000, the discovery of a second more complete and robust mandible D 2600 presents a threefold interest: palaeontological, functional and pathological. A comparison with Homo habilis and Homo erectus leads to the recognition of a new Homo species: H. georgicus sp. nov. The morphofunctional characteristics and the antiquity of H. georgicus characterise the root of a long Eurasian line.