Bipedalism in Orrorin tugenensis revealed by its femora

Martin PICKFORD, Brigitte SENUT, Dominique GOMMERY & Jacques TREIL

en Comptes Rendus Palevol 1 (4) - Pages 191-203

Published on 30 September 2002

Three fragments of femora of Orrorin tugenensis, a 6 Ma hominid from the Lukeino Formation, Kenya, possesses a suite of derived characters that reveal that the species was habitually bipedal. Detailed anatomical comparisons with modern humans, Australopithecines and Miocene and extant African apes, reveal that Orrorin shares several apomorphic features with Australopithecines and Homo, but none with Pan or Gorilla. Within the Hominidae, the femur of Orrorin is closer morphologically to that of modern humans than it is to those of australopithecines.


bipedalism, Upper Miocene, Tugen Hills, Kenya, Orrorin tugenensis, femur

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