Peasant and puma (Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771)) relations in the Argentinian Chaco (Córdoba) are assessed through interviews, participant observation and a zooarchaeological approach. Thus, we present information concerning human perceptions surrounding this carnivore and an analysis of the remains of a puma that had been hunted, prepared as pickles and consumed by local dwellers. Despite the negative perceptions (N = 61 interviewees) associated with the threat that pumas represent to the subsistence of the rural populations, it has been possible to record consumption practices (as food and medicine) of the animal. The zooarchaeological analysis of 19 elements selected for the consumption of the carnivore has also provided information about modes of preparation and practices that do not appear in the narratives. Finally, we note that local perceptions in relation to pumas are being subjected to changes associated with socioeconomic pressures and ecological transformations, thus we highlight the role of transdisciplinary approaches in supporting biocultural conservation in the area.
Hunting, consumption, zooarchaeology.