In this paper we describe Mollinedia arianeae Lírio & M.Pignal, sp. nov., a new microendemic species from the Itatiaia National Park, at the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The new species is most similar to M. jorgearum Peixoto and M. leucantha Molz & D.Silveira, being differentiated of them mainly by the habit, shape and colour of leaves when dried, type and indumentum of inflorescence, shape of the receptacle and margin of tepals shape in staminate flowers. We provide a morphological description, a comparison with related species, geographic distribution, comments on ecology and a preliminary extinction risk assessment. Beyond the academic readership, we believe that it is essential to promote science, technology and education in Brazil. We therefore also propose a summary in Portuguese intended for amateur botanists and students who may be interested in this work.
Flora of Brazil, flora of Rio de Janeiro, morphology, tropical biodiversity, plant conservation, endemism, extinction risk assessment, IUCN status