Aralia lihengiana J. Wen, L. Deng & X. Shi is described from southwestern China. It is a member of Aralia sect. Pentapanax (Seem.) J. Wen and an apparent close relative of the Himalayan A. gigantea J. Wen. Both species have sparsely serrate leaflet margins and racemose inflorescence units, but the new taxon is unique in the genus in bearing 3-4 or rarely 5-locular ovaries whereas other species of Aralia mostly have 5-locular ovaries.