Recent researches, led according to a pluridisciplinary and a long term approach from Neolithic to present times, in three Windows of the mediterranean region (Enveitg, Pyrénées-Orientales, France; Delos, Cyclades, Greece; El mogheïri, mount-Lebanon, Lebanon) looked at the association of cattle breeding, forestry and agriculture. In one of these spaces, agriculture holds a place of which importance and conséquences on the management of the mountain remain to define (mountain of Enveitg). In another case, it is the major reason of landscape organization (Delos Island). Elsewhere, agriculture shares the space and the time with silvicultural and pastoral practices (Lebanese mountain). The pluridisciplinary approach looks at the human occupation of the mountain mainly through soils and agricultural organizations of the landscape by attempting to understand the place of the cattle and its archaeological legibility in spaces built for cultures.