We describe and illustrate three new species of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce from Brazil: E. blepharadena O.L.M.Silva & Cordeirosp. nov., E. longipedunculata O.L.M.Silva & Riina sp. nov.and E. sobolifera O.L.M.Silva & P.J.Braun sp. nov. Based o n morphological characteristics, E. blepharadena sp. nov.and E. longipedunculata sp. nov. are placed in the subcosmopolitan section Anisophyllum, whereas E. sobolifera sp. nov.is placed in the more geographically restricted section Crossadenia. The thr ee new species are compared with their most similar species in each section, and accompanied by comments on habitat and distribution, illustrations, photographs, and proposed conservation status.