First collections are reported for Elaphomyces species from Africa and Madagascar. On the basis of an ITS phylogeny, the authors question the monophyletic nature of family Elaphomycetaceae and of the genus Elaphomyces. The objective of this preliminary paper was not to propose a new phylogeny for Elaphomyces, but rather to draw attention to the very high dissimilarity among ITS sequences for Elaphomyces and to the unfortunate choice of species to represent the genus in most previous phylogenetic publications on Elaphomycetaceae and other cleistothecial ascomycetes. Our study highlights the need for examining the monophyly of this family and to verify the systematic status of Pseudotulostoma as a separate genus for stipitate species. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for an in-depth morphological study, combined with molecular sequencing of the studied taxa, to point out the phylogenetically informative characters of the discussed taxa.