Arecomyces is a genus only known from palms and in this paper is reported for the first time from Brazil. Arecomyces attaleae is a new species from Attalea funifera, a palm in Bahia State, Brazil. It is described and illustrated and compared with congeneric species. This new taxon is distinguished mainly by its large ascospores. Arecomyces bruneiensis was found on Elaeis guineensis in Pernambuco State, Brazil and is reported for the first time in South America. A synopsis of all known Arecomyces species is also provided.