Field observations, lasting 3 years, were conducted to elucidate the role of tree cover and litter layer on changes in fungal community composition. The study areas were four reforestations of Abies alba in two age classes on Monte Amiata (Italy). Experiments designed for statistical analysis showed that different degrees of canopy thinning and litter removal had distinct effects on fungal communities. In particular, thinning mitigated the effects of other environmental factors, such as the age of the forest and the presence or absence of the litter layer, on the composition of the fungal communities. A comparison with other mycocoenoses in similar forest ecosystems in which no intervention had taken place showed substantial differences, thus the role of the various silvicultural manipulations should be taken into consideration when planning sustainable forest management.