In a first inventory of the lichen flora of the Reserva Biológica San Francisco (1800-3150 m) in the Andes of Southern Ecuador we report 214 species of which 55 are new records for the country. Apparently four species are new to science. About 55% of the species are widespread in the tropics (21% neotropical and 34% pantropical), 14,5% have a temperate origin and 5% are restricted to the Andes. Endemism with only 2% is low. A preliminary list with data on the biogeography, habitats and substrates of the species is provided.