New remains of kollpaniine “condylarths” (Panameriungulata) from the early Palaeocene of Bolivia shed light on hypocone origins and molar proportions among ungulate-like placentals

Christian de MUIZON, Guillaume BILLET & Sandrine LADEVÈZE

en Geodiversitas 41 (25) - Pages 841-874

Published on 19 December 2019

The description of new specimens of kollpaniines “condylarths” from Tiupampa (early Palaeocene of Bolivia) represents a significant addition to the knowledge of the earliest fauna of South American ungulates. Several partial mandibles and maxillae of Molinodus suarezi and Simoclaenus sylvaticus are described. The morphology of the lower premolars of Molinodus, being associated to lower molars, is established and a previous referral of an isolated p4 is rejected. A maxilla of Simoclaenus reveals the morphology of the so far unknown P1-4 of this taxon and allows a discussion on the development of the protocone in Palaeocene “condylarths”. The subvertical maxilla-premaxilla suture and the vertical implantation of the P1/p1 confirm the shortness of the snout of Simoclaenus, whereas the procumbency of the p1 of Molinodus indicates a longer rostrum. The upper molars of Molinodus confirm the presence of a tendency to duplication of the protocone, which is regarded as the incipient development of a pseudohypocone. The various patterns of formation of a hypocone (or pseudohypocone) are considered and, among other South American Native Ungulates, a protocone-derived pseudohypocone (i.e. Molinodus-like) is hypothesized in Lamegoia, Raulvaccia, and notoungulates, whereas a postcingulum-derived, hypocone is present in didolodontids and litopterns.


Kollpaniinae, “condylarths”, early Palaeocene, Bolivia, hypocone, pseudohypocone, molars relative proportions

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