Tineobius (Tineobius) tamaricis Ribes & Fusu sp. nov. is newly described from Parapodia sinaica (Frauenfeld, 1859) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) galls from Catalonia in Spain. This is the first record of the so far Palaeotropical genus Tineobius Ashmead, 1896 in the Palaearctic region. Basic biological data and a DNA barcode are provided for the new species. Parapodia sinaica (the host of T. tamaricis sp. nov.) is reported for the first time to form galls on Tamarix canariensis (Willd). A checklist of described world Tineobius species is provided, with nine species formally transferred to Tineobius from Anastatoidea Gahan, 1927 and thirteen species newly assigned to T. (Tineobius). Metapelma seyrigi (Risbec, 1952) is transferred to Tineobius and the replacement name Tineobius (Tineobius) madagascariensis nom. nov. is proposed, as the name is preoccupied by Tineobius (Tineobius) seyrigi (Ferrière, 1938) comb. nov.; Tineobius (Tineobius) albopalpalis (Brues, 1907) comb. nov. is transferred from Charitopus Förster, 1856 (a genus in Encyrtidae). One species is transferred from Anastatoidea to Eupelmus Dalman, 1820 as Eupelmus (Episolindelia) ambatomangae (Risbec, 1958) comb. nov.
Chalcidoidea, DNA barcoding, Tamarix, nomenclature, Parapodia sinaica.