The extended excavations from 1998 to 2000 in Yuanmou, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, resulted in the discovery of a new Late Miocene (ca 9-7 Ma) hominoid locality with associated mammalian fauna at Leilao. It includes a new muntjak, Muntiacus leilaoensis sp. nov. It has similar morphology to the extant forms and is the earliest record of the Muntiacus. This discovery shows that the Muntiacus are a persistent and conservative group in contrast with the other rapidly evolving cervids since ca 9-7 Ma.
Muntiacus, Cervidae, Artiodactyla, Yuanmou, China, Late Miocene