The clavicle morphology in dorsal view, which is associated to shoulder architecture, is different in Neanderthals, great apes and modern humans. Its morphology shows that the Neanderthal scapula was in a higher position in regard to the thorax than in modern humans, which thus explains its extreme length. Moreover, among Neanderthals, there is an east–west gradient for several characters. In other words, the more the individuals come from the west part of Europe, the more their characters become Neanderthal. Thus Neanderthal man could be defined as a polytypic species with a geographic speciation by circular overlaps.
Neanderthal, Taforalt, clavicle, shoulder, speciation, adaptation, throw forces, Morocco