The fossil record of fishes from the Farola de Monte Hermoso locality (lower Pliocene) in the southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina, shows an unusual composition. The locality at the southern boundary of the Brazilian Ichthyogeographic Realm. However, its fossil record is composed of fossil fishes that are not necessarily related to Brazilian lineages, namely indeterminate siluriforms, trichomycterid catfishes, and percomorphaceans. The aim of the present contribution is to describe and report for the first time isolated specimens belonging to Characidae fishes. In the Pampean region the fossil record of characids is restricted to Oligosarcus Günther, 1864 sp. from the late-middle Pleistocene. The present finding fills a temporal gap between the Paleogene and Quaternary reports and indicates that Brazilian fish lineages were present in the area by early Pliocene times, and may constitute an indirect evidence of the evolution of the basins in the southern Pampean Area.
Characidae, Pliocene, Farola de Monte Hermoso, Brazilian Ichthyofauna