The Rhinocerotidae material from the early Pleistocene Tetoiu Formation of Colțești (southwestern Romania) is here described for the first time. The rhinoceros is documented by calcaneus and second, third, and fourth metatarsals, probably belonging to the same individual. The morphology and the dimensions of these specimens enable us to record the presence of Stephanorhinus jeanvireti , a relatively rare rhinoceros usually reported from late Pliocene European localities and recently considered a junior synonym of S. elatus . Nevertheless, the taxon Rhinoceros elatus is here regarded as a nomen dubium and the name S. jeanvireti is retained in order to maintain nomenclatural stability, being it based on much more diagnostic material. In Romania, S. jeanvireti has been listed within a few late Pliocene faunal assemblages, but the rhinoceros remains are fragmentary and isolated bones. The Colțești find is among the best documented records of S. jeanvireti in Romania. The biochronological distribution of S. jeanvireti is mainly confined within the MNQ16 (early and early middle Villafranchian), and its first occurrence is doubtfully reported in late MNQ15 faunas. The record of Colțești (MNQ17/MNQ18) represents, instead, the last occurrence of this taxon in Europe.
Stephanorhinus, morphology, taxonomy, early Pleistocene, paleobiogeography, Oltenia Province, southwestern Romania