The fossiliferous site at Kavakdere is one of many important late Miocene fossil mammal-bearing localities in Anatolia. Previous taxonomic studies on its fauna have revealed a plethora of taxa. However, the fossil Giraffidae from this early Turolian locality were until now poorly documented. New comprehensive descriptions, comparisons and metric analyses using all accessible Giraffidae specimens from Kavakdere suggest the co-occurrence of five different giraffid taxa. These include Helladotherium duvernoyi, Bramatherium perimense and Palaeotragus rouenii. Two different samotheriines are also identified; the smaller Samotherium boissieri and the larger Alcicephalus neumayri. The latter is only known from the Turolian of Iran and North China. The occurrence of A. neumayri at Kavakdere constitutes the first fossil record of this taxon from a western locality, suggesting a more dominant presence of Alcicephalus in the Pikermian biome.
Ruminantia, Helladotherium, Bramatherium, Palaeotragus, Alcicephalus, MN11