Scelidotheriinae (Mammalia, Pilosa) is a xenarthran mylodontid clade recorded in much of South America from the middle Miocene to the early Holocene. However, studies of their Neogene representatives are still scarce compared to their Quaternary representatives. The main goal of this contribution is to report new remains of Proscelidodon rothi (Ameghino, 1908) found in the basal levels of the El Polvorín Formation (Pliocene), cropping out near the city of Olavarría (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). On the basis of the faunistic association, these deposits were assigned to the late Pliocene. The new materials include a skull, a mandible, and a calcaneal fragment (Xen-121), which enhance the characterization of this taxon, and allow more precise comparisons with other Neogene and Quaternary Scelidotheriinae. This new record extends the biochron and geographic distribution of the species, until now recorded in the latest Pliocene (Marplatan Stage/Age, Vorohuean Subage) of Olavarría.
Anatomy, Mylodontidae, Neogene, South America, Buenos Aires