Apart from humans, other predators can take part in creating bone accumulations by generating waste materials that may have been mixed with those produced by hominids and leading to the formation of palimpsests. This is discussed here in the case of Middle Paleolithic leporid assemblages, to which carnivores have frequently contributed. Level III of Teixoneres Cave (MIS 3) is a sample that can be used to address the origin of leporid assemblages in archaeological contexts. Applying an archaeozoological and taphonomical methodology has made it possible to state that the assemblage of leporids in the site has been generated by a mix of contributions, in which small mammal carnivores and nocturnal raptors seem to play an important role, together with occasional hominid inputs. The aim of this paper is to present new data about Neanderthal activities at this site and support the hypothesis related to short-term human occupations in the cave.
Rabbits, Neanderthals, Mammal carnivores, Nocturnal raptors, Palimpsest, Middle Paleolithic, Teixoneres Cave, Spain