Anchitherium nievei sp. nov. is erected on the basis of dentognathic remains from the late Aragonian (MN7+8, ca. 12.3–12.1 to 11.7–11.6 Ma, Middle Miocene) of three localities from the Abocador de Can Mata local stratigraphic series (els Hostalets de Pierola, Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, Spain). This taxon differs from endemic species of Anchitherium from the inner Iberian basins, most closely resembling A. aurelianense, A. hippoides and A. steinheimense by its marked brachyodonty and small dental size, although differing by dental proportions and several details of occlusal morphology. From a paleoenvironmental viewpoint, the presence of this taxon fits well with previous inferences that indicated a relatively closed and humid forested habitat, more similar to that of similarly aged French localities.
Perissodactyla, Equids, Anchitherium, Fossil horses, Taxonomy