Phylogenetic and morphological analyzes were used to compare the samples collected in the Fernando de Noronha and Trindade Islands with the continental ones. A phylogenetic tree comprising 37 representatives of Fissidens Hedw. was constructed using plastid gene data (trnG and rps4). Specimens of F. flaccidus Mitt. and F. hornschuchii Mont. on the islands appeared to be genetically and morphologically similar to samples from the continent. Together these studies showed that the specimens identified as F. crispus Mont. from Fernando de Noronha differ from both those previously recorded on islands and those on the continent, leading us to describe a newly species. Furthermore F. steerei Grout is new recorded for Fernando de Noronha, Brazil.
Endemism, Fissidens, Fernando de Noronha Islands, Trindade Island, rps4 marker, trnG marker, new species