During recent botanical surveys undertaken in South America (Uruguay and Paraguay) some of the samples collected were identified as Tortella fruchartii (Müll. Hal.) R. H. Zander and T. lilliputana (Müll. Hal. ex G. Roth) R. H. Zander, two autoicous species of the genus with distribution area restricted to the New World. The former is re-described based on recent collections from Uruguay, where it has not been found since its original description in 1888; while the latter is recorded for the first time from Paraguay. Detailed descriptions, illustrations in LM and SEM, and a distribution map of the two species are here presented.
Autoicous species, Barbula, Bryophyta, cleistocarpous, Paraguay, stegocarpous, Uruguay.