The number of Closterium species known from the Burkina Faso is small. The present study aims to contribute to the knowledge of species of this genus in Burkina Faso by means of an investigation of temporary ponds. The study of Closterium in ponds was conducted in the central and the eastern parts of the country, during the rainy seasons of 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected and preserved with formalin. Aliquots of the samples were examined and illustrations made with a light microscope equipped with a drawing tube and a camera. Identifications of species were made with the use of standard works. In total, twenty-six taxa of Closterium were identified and described. Among them, twenty-four have already been reported from Africa and nineteen are cosmopolitan. Eighteen species (62) are new for the country. The number of species reported shows that Closterium could be considered as a diverse genus in temporary ponds. Some species are either neutrophiles or alkaliphiles but many of them are neutrophiles as well as alkaliphiles.