A small collection of Paguristes Dana, 1851 s.l. from the western Indian Ocean in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, contains five species of Paguristes s.s., two of Stratiotes Thomson, 1899, and two of Pseudopaguristes McLaughlin, 2002. Except for Paguristes lauriei McLaughlin & Hogarth, 1998, and Stratiotes abbreviatus (Dechancé, 1963) n. comb., five other species, i.e. P. palythophilus Ortmann, 1892, P. puniceus Henderson, 1896, P. antennarius Rahayu, 2006, S. micheleae Rahayu, 2005 and Pseudopaguristes laurentae (Morgan & Forest, 1991) are new for the area, and two, Paguristes petalodactylus n. sp. and Pseudopaguristes araeos n. sp., are new to science. Paguristes petalodactylus n. sp. is characterized by the broad and flattened dactyls of the second and third pereopods and the form of the dactyls of the chelipeds, which are subrectangular and covered with small corneous-tipped spines on each mesial face. Pseudopaguristes araeos n. sp. is characterized by the presence of three irregular rows of spines on the mesial face of each dactyl of the chelipeds and the distal tapering of ocular peduncles.
Crustacea, Paguroidea, Diogenidae, hermit crabs, Paguristes, Stratiotes, Pseudopaguristes, western Indian Ocean, new species.