Coelomycetes are significant fungi, being important plant pathogens responsible for a wide range of diseases worldwide and utilized in industry with some being prolific producers of novel compounds. Morphological identification of genera and species, and species complexes of cryptic taxa is difficult because of the dearth of distinctive morphological characters. With molecular techniques at our disposal we can now begin to understand the phylogeny and complexity of these poorly studied organisms. Large numbers of genera have to be recollected and restudied using molecular techniques. Herbarium material and living cultures must be deposited as a result of future studies and where possible species (and genera) must be epitypified. These efforts will help in the reclassification and phylogeny of the coelomycetes, understanding species complexes and will provide important data for future plant pathology, quarantine and industrial needs.