The current conservation status of lichens and some non-lichenized fungi in central Spain, a vast territory of 80,000 km2 is analysed. A list of 88 lichens is presented and species are classified foliowing IUCN categories and criteria. Some of these criteria are modified to overcome the difficulties that arise when these threat categories are applied to these organisms. Sixteen species are classified as regionally Critically Endangered, 24 as Endangered and 48 as Vulnerable. Most of them are epiphytes (85%), probably because other lichen elements have been poorly studied in the territory. The main threats affecting these lichens are forest management activities and fire because the main habitats for threatened lichens are deciduous and sclerophyllous forests. Information covering different features of lichens belonging to Critically Endangered and Endangered is also included. Finally, several hotspots for endangered lichens in the territory are described and suggested as biodiversity conservation reserves.