Five species of the terrestrial diatom genus Luticola D.G.Mann were found during a taxonomic survey of two small volcanic islands, Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul (Southern Indian Ocean). Apart from the two already known Luticola species L. beyensii Van de Vijver et al. and L. subcrozetensis Van de Vijver et al., two new species are described: L. ivetana Chattová & Van de Vijver sp. nov. and L. vancampiana Chattová & Van de Vijver sp. nov. Finally, one, up to now unknown, Luticola species is briefly discussed and illustrated. Detailed morphological descriptions of these taxa are provided based on both light and scanning electron microscopy observations. Morphological features of the new species are compared to morphologically similar taxa, and notes on their ecology and biogeography are added.