This updated checklist of the bryophytes of Madagascar was compiled from the literature, herbarium and recent collections. A total of 1144 species and infraspecific taxa are recorded for Madagascar composed of 751 mosses, 390 liverworts and 3 hornworts. 28.67% of the species reported for the Island are endemics. Twenty-four taxa are newly recorded for Madagascar and two of them, Fissidens cyathaeicola Brugg.Nann. and Taxithelium nepalense (Schwägr.) Broth. are reported for the first time for the Sub-Saharan Africa region.