The genus Sphagnum L. is studied through the revision of the Portuguese specimens collected in Continental Portugal, either kept in Portuguese herbaria or from author’s collections. Distribution patterns are presented in individual maps for each taxon and related to climatic and topographic conditions. Twenty one taxa are reported, mainly distributed in the Northwest, in coastal lagoons and in the Central Mountain range. In the last twenty years most of the taxa had their distribution areas enlarged because of intensive fieldwork while others could not be confirmed recently. Comments on their diagnostic characters, phenology and chorology are presented, in order to emphasise the importance of studying these taxa at a regional level and at the Southern limit of their European range. Their conservation status is evaluated according to IUCN categories and compared to that of the Iberian Peninsula and also the main threats are identified.