The ptiloneurid genus Ptiloneura Enderlein, 1901 presently includes 34 species, and only one is recorded from Brazil. Two new Brazilian species of this genus, P. castroi n. sp. (Pará: Marabá, Serra Norte) from Amazon Forest and P. leonardoi n. sp. (Santa Catarina: Nova Teutônia) from Atlantic Forest, are here described and illustrated. We discuss on the forewing venation variation for P. leonardoi n. sp. and for another, already known species, i.e. P. baiana (Silva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, 2018). We also provide an identification key and a geographic distribution map for the Brazilian species. The new species of Ptiloneura constitute the first record for the Brazilian Amazon Forest and the second record for the Atlantic Forest. The number of species of Ptiloneura is raised to 36, of which 25 species are Colombian, three species each are found in Brazil and Peru, one species each from Nicaragua and Venezuela and the three last species are shared by Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela.
Neotropics, South America, Epipsocetae, Psocids, new record, new species