The neotropical diplurid spider genus Linothele Karsch, 1879 is reviewed. Three species of Linothele are newly described: Linothele septentrionalis n. sp. based on the absence of maxillary cuspules and presence of a sternal pattern; Linothele spinosa n. sp. based on the presence of preening-combs and its genital morphology; Linothele uniformis n. sp. based on its scopula, clypeus and genital morphology. Eight species names are newly synonymized: Linothele soricina (Simon, 1889) n. syn. is recognized a junior synonym of Linothele curvitarsis Karsch, 1879; Linothele bitaeniata (Mello-Leitão, 1941) n. syn. and Linothele nigerrima (Mello-Leitão, 1941) n. syn. are removed from the synonymy with Linothele aequatorialis (Ausserer, 1871) and instead considered junior synonyms of Linothele sericata (Karsch, 1879) together with Linothele megatheloides Paz & Raven, 1990 n. syn. Linothele longicauda (Ausserer, 1871) is recognized a senior synonym of Linothele aequatorialis (Ausserer, 1871) n. syn. and Linothele cousini (Simon, 1889) n. syn.; Linothele paulistana (Mello-Leitão, 1924) is recognized a senior synonym of Linothele annulifila (Mello-Leitão, 1937) n. syn.; Ischnothele caudata Ausserer, 1875 is recognized a senior synonym of Linothele dubia (Caporiacco, 1947) n. syn.; Linothele borgmeyeri (Mello-Leitão, 1924) is removed from the synonymy with Linothele gymnognatha (Bertkau, 1880) and considered a nomen dubium. Linothele gymnognatha and Linothele keithi (Chamberlin, 1916) are transferred back to Diplura C. L. Koch, 1850 and Brachythele Ausserer, 1871, respectively, due to original designation and considered nomina dubia. New distribution data and information on several species are presented.