During the French cruises conducted in the South-West Pacific during the last 20 years, two new Parapenaeus were found: Parapenaeus kensleyi n. sp., off New Caledonia, Vanuatu and the Fiji Islands; and Parapenaeus cayrei n. sp., off Tonga and the Chesterfield Islands. Amongst the Parapenaeus species provided with a branchiostegal spine on the anterior border of the carapace and extended by a rather long carina, P. kensleyi n. sp., with its long and sinuous rostrum, is related to P. australis Dall, 1957, P. lanceolatus (Bate, 1881) and P. perezfarfante Crosnier, 1986. Parapenaeus cayrei n. sp., with its short and straight rostrum, is related to P. fissurus (Bate, 1881), P. sextuberculatus Kubo, 1949 and P. ruberoculatus Hall, 1962. In both cases, the shape of the distal part of the ventrolateral lobe of the petasma in the males, the arrangement of the lateral bulbous portions and median tubercles, and the bulgings of the thelycum in the females allow the new species to be readily distinguished.
Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeoidea, Penaeidae, Parapenaeus, South-West Pacific, distribution, new species.