Two Amphiuridae, Amphiura (Amphiura) callida n. sp. and Amphiodia habilis n. sp., were collected from the continental shelf off southeastern Brazil during the MD55/Brazil oceanographic cruise. Amphiura callida n. sp. differs from other species of the same genus in the leaf-like shape of the distal oral papillae, which curves outwards, and disposition of the number of arm spines through the length of the arm. Amphiodia habilis n. sp. is distinguished from other Amphiodia especially by the organization of plates on its thick disk. Two identification keys for Brazilian species of Amphiura and Amphiodia are proposed.
Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Amphiuridae, Amphiura, Amphiodia, southwest Atlantic, oceanographic cruise MD55/Brazil, new species.