Until now, the species Oioceros rothii (Wagner, 1857) was known only by isolated horn-cores, frontlets and skull fragments, but its skull structure and dentition were poorly known. In this article, an almost complete skull of O. rothii with associated mandibles, plus isolated dentitions and frontlets from Pikermi, the type locality, are described and compared. The species O. rothii has many characters in common with O. atropatenes (Rodler & Weithofer, 1890) and Samotragus praecursor Bouvrain & Bonis, 1985. It has a relative short face, slightly inclined in relation to the braincase, which is relatively long. Its dentition is characterised by a premolar series, which is longer relatively to the molars than in O. atropatenes and S. praecursor. "Oioceros" wegneri Andree, 1926 probably represents a different genus, characterised by a longer and strongly inclined face in relation to the braincase, short braincase and horn-cores placed almost entirely behind the orbits.
Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae, Oioceros, Samotragus, Samodorcas, late Miocene, Pikermi, Greece, Eurasia