Equus Stenonis from the middle Villafranchian locality of Volax (Macedonia, Greece)

George D. KOUFOS & Theodora D. VLACHOU

en Geodiversitas 19 (3) - Pages 641-657

Published on 30 September 1997

The locality of Volax is situated in eastern Macedonia, Greece, in a small karstic-tectonic basin. The Volax horse is a large-sized horse with moderately plicated enamel in the upper teeth, short protocone with flat lingual border, hypsodont teeth, slightly plicated flexids in the lower teeth, as well as short and robust metapodials. The dental and postcranial characters of the Volax horse indicate that it is a stenonoid horse with greatest similarities to the horse from Dafnero (Greece) and La Puebla (Spain). It is also close to E. s. vireti from Saint-Vallier, as well as to the horse from Olivola and Matassino (Italy). The study of the Volax equids adds to our knowledge about the Villafranchian horses and their relationships. The age of the Volax locality is also discussed and a middle Villafranchian age (MN17) is proposed.


mammalia, Equidae, middle Villafranchian, Macedonia, Greece

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