Two species of Campylopus, C. fragiliformis and C. pilifer, were previously reported from Trindade Island, a Brazilian island situated in the South Atlantic Ocean around 1100 km off the coast of mainland Brazil. Phylogenetic inferences from sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers and three plastid markers are consistent with the recognition of two Campylopus species on Trindade. However, the island populations of C. pilifer are nested among those of C. introflexus and those of C. fragiliformis among those of C. occultus. A re-investigation of morphological characters confirms that the populations from Trindade Island belong to these species. Based on phylogenetic relationships, both C. introflexus and C. occultus probably reached Trindade from continental South America. The colonization of Trindade by C. introflexus in particular might have been facilitated by the severe human impact on the original vegetation throughout the last five centuries.