A history of the discoveries and descriptions of species of the broadly conceived genus Racomitrium Brid. in the Southern Hemisphere in 1800-1850 is briefly outlined. Dryptodon crispulus Hook.f. et Wilson and D. rupestris Hook.f. et Wilson are the two earliest described species in the Southern Hemisphere, from the Campbell Islands south of New Zealand and Isla Hermite in the Cape Horn area in southern South America, respectively, which are still accepted in modern moss taxonomy. The taxonomic and nomenclatural history of these species is discussed and it is proved that the authorship of their names in Racomitrium should be ascribed to "(Hook.f. et Wilson) Wilson", not to "(Hook.f. et Wilson) Hook.f. et Wilson", as commonly used in the bryological literature. The problem of the valid publication of Bucklandiella crispula (Hook.f. et Wilson) Bednarek-Ochyra et Ochyra is briefly considered and Dryptodon rupestris Hook.f. et Wilson is lectotypified.