Based on former collections from Oman, Saudi Arabia and Yemen, supplemented by a small collection from Yemen by E. Schröder in 1988-1989, new records of ten mosses are given for the Arabian Peninsula. New to the Peninsula are Bryum alpinum With. and Vesicularia montagnei (Bél.) Broth., the latter new for Southwest Asia and a major range extension. Vesicularia montagnei belongs to a number of xeric Palaeotropical elements with an Arabian-Southeast Asian distribution pattern that reach their westernmost limit on the Arabian Peninsula and the Socotra archipelago. These Palaeotropical species are mostly concentrated in the xerotropical relict forests of the border mountains, and indicate a common Tertiary floral history of South Arabia and Southeast Asia.