Bucklandiella lamprocarpa (Müll.Hal.) Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra is the only rheophytic representative of the genus in South Africa. Although this distinct and almost unmistakable species is bipolar in distribution, it is mostly an austral cool-temperate species ranging northwards along the alpine belts of South America and Africa. Examples are given of pan-Holantarctic mosses in the Cape Floristic Region and hypotheses put forward to explain this distribution pattern. The South African distribution of B. lamprocarpa is mapped and described in detail.