Three species of Macromitrium (Bryopsida, Orthotrichaceae), namely M. blumei Nees ex Schwägr., M. cuspidatum Hampe, and M. turgidum Dixon are reported for the first time from China (Hainan and Tibet). Studies of their types and morphological similar species suggest that M. turgidum Dixon var. laeve Dixon is conspecific with M. turgidum Dixon. A key to 27 Chinese species of Macromitrium with their distribution range is presented. For Chinese Macromitrium, east Asiatic element, element endemic to China, and tropical Asian element account for 37.04%, 33.33% and 22.22%, respectively. 62.96% species of Chinese Macromitrium have a tropical distribution pattern. China has a close relationship with Japan and tropical Asia in the flora of Macromitirum.