Five species of mosses (Anomodon pseudotristis, Calymperes afzelii, C. motleyi, Mesonodon flavescens, Mitthyridium flavum) are reported as new for New Caledonia. Anomodon and Mesonodon are new genus reports for New Caledonia. Calomnium iwatsukii, a species endemic to New Caledonia and hitherto only known from the type locality, is recorded from a second locality. Sporophytes of Sphagnum novo-caledoniae were found for the first time and are described. The following sporophytic features of S. novo-caledoniae are rare or absent among the genus Sphagnum: sporophytes developed on elongated branches, capsules immersed in perichaetial leaves, pseudopodium extremely short, pseudostomata absent from capsule surface.