Orthotrichum patens Bruch & Brid., considered to be a rare moss in the Iberian Peninsula, is reported from two localities in Northern Spain (Asturias and Navarra). After revision of the herbarium material corresponding to previous records of this species in the Iberian Peninsula, we conclude that most of them (Asturias, Álava, León and La Rioja provinces) are erroneous. However, two early records (Sierra Nevada and Sierra de Ancares) remain uncertain since the corresponding herbarium material has not been found. We also provide details of two new localities of Orthotrichum patens in Romania and two in Turkey, where the species has been poorly recorded. Finally, we discuss the characters that allow the discrimination of Orthotrichum patens from related species, especially from O. stramineum Hornsch., the moss that has most often been confused with it in Spain.