A synthesis of the current knowledge on the bryophyte flora of the Natural Park of Serra da Estrela (PNSE) is presented. This study is based on 7500 specimens, from old records since 1804 but mainly on material collected recently. Three hundred and eighty three taxa (284 mosses and 99 hepatics) are reported from the area. Thirty three taxa are first reports to Beira Alta province, and eighteen species are new to the Natural Park. Data on the distribution of bryophyte species are updated, and distributional patterns of bryophytes in the Park are analysed. PNSE is the exclusive area of occurrence for 37 taxa in Portugal, which evidences the importance of the bryophyte flora in this area.
Seven phytogeographical elements are recognized, among which the most represented ones are the oceanic, temperate and boreal elements. Potential threats to the bryoflora in this area are discussed.