The genus Hygrohypnum Lindb. is studied for the Iberian Peninsula, based mainly on herbarium specimens kept in BM, PC, S and the main Iberian herbaria. Eight species of Hygrohypnum occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Hygrohypnum cochlearifolium, H. duriusculum, H. eugyrium, H. luridum, H. molle, H. ochraceum, H. smithii and H. styriacum. Of these, H. eugyrium and H. cochlearifolium are considered to be extinct in the Iberian Peninsula. Hygrohypnum alpestre and H. polare are definitively excluded from the Iberian bryophyte flora, since its occurrence at present or in the past could not be confirmed. Only the occurrence of Hygrohypnum ochraceum has been confirmed for Portugal. Keys, descriptions, illustrations, SEM photographs and distribution maps of the species of Hygrohypnum in the Iberian Peninsula are provided.