The moss flora of Uruguay is very poorly known. Heretofore, it contains 175 species and 6 varieties, distributed in 81 genera. The alphabetical checklist includes accepted taxa with primary references and distributional data for Uruguayan departments. All the data are based on literature records up to January 2002. The local taxonomic and nomenclatural synonyms are presented in a separate alphabetical list. A new combination Rosulabryum montevidense (Broth.) Ochyra & Matteri (Bryum montevidense Broth.) is proposed.