Cystoseira granulata C. Agardh var. turneri Montagne was described by Montagne (1838) from Algeria (southern Mediterranean Sea). Subsequently, Agardh (1842) renamed the taxon as C. montagnei J. Agardh, on the basis of specimens from France and the northern Adriatic (northern Mediterranean Sea) which he believed to be identical to Montagne’s taxon. Finally, Sauvageau (1912) described C. spinosa Sauvageau and C. adriatica Sauvageau as nomina nova, to partly accommodate Agardh’s and some other authors’ concept of C. montagnei. These taxonomic treatments caused confusion regarding the delineation of these taxa and doubts have been raised regarding the taxonomic value of Montagne’s taxon, which today is often listed as taxon inquirendum in updated checklists and floras. Since 2014, we have collected near Algiers (Algeria) a species of Cystoseira that formed sparse forests between 10 and 25 m depth. Our specimens perfectly match the original description as well as the syntype material of Montagne’s taxon. They are well characterized and distinct from C. montagnei J. Agardh and from all the Cystoseira taxa hitherto described in having: a single axis with young tophules spinose becoming smooth-tuberculate when older; primary branches either slightly compressed with an inconspicuous rib and irregularly alternate in one plane, or cylindrical and branched in all directions, with spaced short spine-like appendages; and conceptacles both intercalary basal, just above the tophule, and terminal on branchlets. Here, we propose Cystoseira michaelae Verlaque et al. nom. et stat. nov. to accommodate Montagne’s taxon (Cystoseira granulata C. Agardh var. turneri Montagne) and the lectotypification of the species on the basis of both Montagne’s protologue and of an original specimen of Montagne (out of the syntype housed at the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, PC). Cystoseira michaelae seems to be an endemic species restricted to Algeria and northern Tunisia. In addition, C. montagnei J. Agardh is lectotypified on the basis of an original specimen of J.G. Agardh (out of the syntype housed at the Botanical Museum of Lund University, LD). The study of lectotypes of C. spinosa Sauvageau and of its synonym C. adriatica Sauvageau confirmed that they are junior synonyms of C. montagnei J. Agardh.